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Abstract Revision

Research Study Article

The research study article selected for the assignment named, “Urinary Incontinence and Diabetes in Postmenopausal Women” (Jackson, Scholes, Boyko, Abraham, & Fihn, 2005). The original article with the abstract is attached herewith.

Assessment of the Abstract

            The author did not follow most of the APA standards related to the abstract. For example, the writer divided the abstract into multiple subsections, which APA standards do not support. Misuse of passive voices is obvious. The writer, however, did format the reference list complying with the APA standards. In the objective section, the author clearly stated the problem addressed. However, no central purpose of the study is listed. The author includes information about the sample and population including their demographics in the research design and methodology section. The key results are summarized informatively and analytically to enable the reader to extract the outcome of the study at the first reading. From the text of the abstract, it is clearly understandable that the article reports a research study conducted on a particular sample population to ensure the existence of urinary incontinence and diabetes in postmenopausal women. The total word count of the abstract is limited to one-page length but in multiple paragraphs.

Abstract Rewritten Following APA Standards

            A revised abstract following all standards of APA:


The study aims to find the characteristics of diabetes and other health risks associated with the postmenopausal urinary incontinence among women who dwell in the community. The central purpose of the study is to identify the risk factors associated with the development of urinary incontinence accompanied by diabetes and its severity among community-dwelling people. The research designs and conducts a cross-sectional analysis on 1,017 postmenopausal women, 218 of which have diabetes. The age of the sample population varies between 55 and 75 years. Outcomes include any irregularities in the month before the study. The result of the study exhibits a 60% overall urinary incontinence with 8% severe incontinence in women in the prior month. The study did not include factors like postvoid bladder residual volume or parity but vaginal and oral estrogens, which get positive linkage with the incontinence. Both incontinence and severe incontinence incorporate the history of urinary tract infection (UTI) as well as a general health condition. Women with diabetes report severe incontinence associated with uncontrolled urination, being unable to empty the bladder completely and unconcerned or discomfort leakage (p ≤ 0.06). A multiple regression model, adjusted for education, age, and history of UTI shows a significant relationship (P = 0.01–0.06) between diabetes duration, neuropathy, retinopathy, treatment type and severe incontinence. The strength of the relationship diminishes (P = 0.17–0.52) with the adjustment of BMI in the model.

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