- Hebrew means “ From across ”- name given to Abraham and his followers
- Israelites : Abraham’s grandson Jacob renamed Israel this means “he who has wrestled with God”. His descendants were called “Israelites”
- Jews : named after Jacob’s son Judah, ancient father of tribe of King David’s dynasty
Tracing Roots of Israel’s History
- Nomadic tribes wandered into Palestine from east in approximately 1900 BCE
- Mesopotamian society dominated by polytheism
- Judaism started when God appeared before Patriarch Abraham at Harran (west of Ephrates) and told him to leave his home and travel until he arrived at Canaan in Palestine. to go and raise a great nation ”
- This began the monotheistic tradition of the Hebrew faith with the establishment of the “Covenant”, “Chosen People” and “Promised Land”
Jacob (grandson of Abraham)
- Abraham’s grandson Jacob took name “Israel” which means “ God ruled ” and organized Israelites into 12 tribes
- Some tribes settled in Egypt (due to drought and famine) and were subjected to Pharaoh rule and slavery
- Other Israelis came as slaves after Egypt conquered Canaan, from 1500 to 1300 BCE.
- During the time of Ramses II, Egypt was going right through its greatest construction period since the pyramids were constructed, over a thousand years before. Many slave labourers were used, including the Israelis.
Moses & Exodus: – “Let My People Go! ”
- Around 1300 BCE Moses led the Israelis out of Egypt (Exodus).
- He led the 12 Tribes of Israel to Mount Sinai where God gave him the 10 Commandments, uniting the Hebrews under one God
- The first commandment “ Thou shalt have no other gods before me ” pretty much sealed Judaism as the monotheist religion that continues today
- It is here that the Jews entered into the covenant with God
- Moses and Hebrews searched for the “ Promised Land ” or the terrain of milk and sweetie, however they wandered found in the desert for 40 years
- They settled in Palestine inside 1230 BCE and re-took Canaan, then they required Jericho.
The Fantastic Kings of Israel
- 1230 BCE , Israelites guided by Joshua, invaded Canaan (Promised Land)
- 1020 BCE : First king of Israelites was Saul, then David, then Solomon
- Below King David the Israelites captured city of Jerusalem and extended Israel in order to its greatest extent.
- King Solomon developed the Temple of Jerusalem, to house the Arc of the Covenant (sacred box to hold Torah)
- Solomon’s Brow was destroyed during Babylonian invasion, rebuilt in 6th century BCE, and ruined again in 70 CE by the Romans
- Only remaining section of Solomon’s Temple is the Western Wall
Lost Tribes of Israel
- After the death of Solomon, Kingdom associated with Israel split into two (north= Israel; south= Judah)
- Israel was conquered by Assyrians in 722 BCE and typically the scattered people were identified as the ‘Lost Tribes regarding Israel’
- Judah was at some point destroyed by Babylon found in 586 BCE and inhabitants were held in captivity (called the Exile or Babylonian Captivity)
- There was an introduction of synagogues and rabbis during Exile
- Released by Persians in 538 BCE and returned to Jerusalem to repair temple
- In the age of the particular prophets; Jewish prophets were always trying to get people to be able to act ethically also to repent for their sins.
- Diaspora is a Greek word meaning “sowing of seed” or “dispersal” which refers to Judaism population living outside regarding Israel
- 332 BCE : Jewish people fell under Hellenization (Greek culture) as Alexander the truly amazing overcome Persia, Egypt and India
- 164 BCE : The group of Jews known as the Maccabees revolted towards Greek rule, took manage of Jerusalem and rededicated the Temple to Lord (Hanukkah)
- 64 BCE : Jerusalem fell to Journal and the Kingdom of Judah became one of the provinces of the particular Roman Empire ( Judea ). Individuals living there were called Judeans, and it is from this word that we find the word Jew
- 66 CE: The people of Judea revolted towards Rome. This uprising has been crushed and the brow was destroyed for the second time in 70 CE
- From concerning 200 BCE the Jews thought that the Messiah would someday arrive at restore His home country of israel to its power in addition to glory.
- Despite the dispersion associated with Jewish people throughout Europe after 70 CE, their culture and religious thinking have been by much the most influential of all the ancient cultures of the Near Eastern
Impact associated with Ancient Israel