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Summary of Chapters

In chapter 16, Diamond notes, that China is more cultural than other numerous countries. He also demonstrates that China remained one of the only small and rare places that certainly began producing food on its own. Though it is not clear if making food started in that period, or in the fertile crescent, the contrast in time is too small to permit the idea of making food to have originated from one place and transferred to the other places. The first voyagers from other areas navigated over oceans to walk over mysterious and minimally discovered lands. The Chinese, on the other hand, remained within their boundaries and did slight extensions outside China. China has, been politically united, excluding for a few centuries. It uses a solitary writing structure. Division of their three clusters of language and its messiness spread over many areas. This is a sign of growth of civilizations.

In chapter 18, Diamond details the amazing benefits that European conquers had over the other inborn inhabitants in the Americas. Europe owned a lot of tamed huge animals. These tamed animals provided, milk, hides, meat, and worked for the Europeans.ย  They permitted better food manufacture wherever agriculture was, and aided offer the additional food manufacturer that is required for there to be experts in culture.ย  The horse also made militaries much more efficient. The common of Innate Americans remained hunters and gatherers due to the absenteeism of reliable sources of grain, productive earth, and numerous environmental barriers that kept back farming developments from spreading. Thus, Europe had a significant lead over the New World.ย  The topography of Eurasia permitted the swifter spread of concepts, foods, and germs. As an outcome of the above, the Europeans had much-improved technology, both for diet making, attacking warfare, self-protective warfare, and better means of transportation.

Summary of Who Are the Japanese

The author added another chapter. The section covers the Japanese language stating that it is the most linguistically disputed. The author peers into their past to try and understand who they are, why their language is unique, and how they came to rise to being a superpower. Japanese people are similar to other Eastern Asians and closely resemble Koreans. They are thought of having moved from their homeland and pushing away the Ainu. Another theory suggests that they evolved from people who initially were the inhabitants of Japan. They have a of archeological sites to try and discover their past.


In this part of the book, the author presents his theorem on the historical difference in people living on different continents is a result of environmental conditions and not biological differences. He tries to dissolve the myth that certain ethnicityโ€™s members are sharp, stating that the environment makes them adapt to be sharp. The differences in the environment that he mentions are rate of diffusion and migration, domestication of animals, and species available for domestication.

2003 Afterword

This mini-chapter reviews the changes in the information since the 1997 publication. It clears information on the origin of the Japanese people, who resulted from an agricultural expansion from Korea. He also states that an indirect route through southwest was the route of spread of crops from Mexico to eastern North America. The author as well provides alternative theories why Europe conquered a lot of territories, unlike China, who had the same advantages as Europe.

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